The stranger is connected to the broader social community by only the most general (and generic) commonalities, yet is still relied on by large groups of people. "Of those who created the intellectual capital used to launch the enterprise of professional sociology, Georg Simmel was perhaps the most original and fecund. For example, for Simmel, it isn’t the specific demands of your overbearing boss that are of primary sociological interest, but rather that the … He is also, in the vein of Schopenhauer and Nietsche concerned with developing a philosophy of life, the meaning of personality and individuality. Moreover it is possible to see in Simmel � in contrast to French positivist I argue that the social theory of Georg Simmel can be used to illustrate certain limitations to the potential of democratic policing. Simmel: The Stranger & “Group expansion and the development of individuality” Background I: Where Simmel fits. �7[��;����BT^�Sz�.P�4�LQ���Y��8���p����eCF9���v��jG"�K��Sx�/'?�Yf,(��Q:J��8�#�-�v̳�mQ�p.ս���2P̑uX�®Gc(��� � 6J���U�S��N�j~� ����U�`�QL7:�i��^����>߀��i���-n'�w _L�qL וP��:�C�>*o�q�K�U��]g��!q6h��Ӥ�� The furthest Simmel has brought his work to a micro-level of analysis was in dealing with forms and interactions that takes place with different types of people. Social Forms, Simmel, Levine "Of those who created the intellectual capital used to launch the enterprise of professional sociology, Georg Simmel was perhaps the most Page 4/25. General sociology is a programme of method-‘the whole of historical life in so far as it is formed societally’. Simmel is widely known for his ‘formal sociology’ meaning that he is interested in the ‘form’ of interactions and relationships. For Simmel, the stranger is a social role that combines the seemingly contradictory qualities of nearness and remoteness. Along with "the stranger," he describes in great phenomenological detail such diverse types as "the mediator," "the poor," "the adventurer," "the man in the middle," and "the renegade." It’s often noted that many of Simmel’s concepts are characterized by combining seeming opposites into a synthetic whole. Simmel sought to isolate the general or recurring forms of social interaction from the more specific kinds of activity, such as political, economic, and aesthetic. He assumes that the individual is born with certain ways of thinking and feeling and most social interactions are motivated by individual needs and desires. He gave special attention to the problem of authority and obedience. While today texts and professional societies are organized around "contents" rather than "forms," a fresh reading of Simmel's chapters on forms suggests original avenues of inquiry into each of the contents--family, business, religion, politics, labor relations, leisure. SOCIAL TYPES 141 10. stream It begins with a discussion of his ideas about a sense of … His social types were complementary to his concept of social forms. Simmel came to see social forms as dominating the life process, as a form of alienation, and his development of his own very individual method-and indeed of the essay form itself-was an attempt to resist this. Simmel points out that the key to doing sociology is to recognize these 'embryonic forms' (p.152). P�\�y���z]��>�u���0k��Z�,���$�A�Kl��lwA��.�1���|JЇ�‚�Tv�+��������S ����*�N�#�R-�F} �0��S��D#�H�!�n�8�������k�8d[�',��Vg��lƕ�r�������0�D�s��En�_�3U��8�5�v���������}י��l��k#�,����n�Xũ�o�� �`�3).�� a�]��cS���W�5XGXp�+�����+ For Simmel there are three kinds of sociology. A social type becomes a type because of his /her relations with others who assign a certain position to this person and have certain expectations of him/her. Simmel always begins and ends with the individual. Simmel was well-known and respected as a great intellectual during his lifetime, gaining the admiration of several prominent contemporaries including Max Weber (Weber and Simmel influenced each others’ thinking greatly). According to Georg Simmel (1858-1918), the inability to actually know another person creates the condition for social relations. Simmel does not believe in the possibility of pure form, as different forms are simultaneously existant and operative. Encounters with others are molded to social forms in order to facilitate reciprocal exchanges. For example, when a student talks to a teacher, the student relies on a generalized concept or image of teachers. Simmel viewed human culture as a dialectical relationship between what he termed “objective culture” and “subjective culture.” He understood “objective culture” as all of those collectively shared human products such as religion, art, literature, philosophy, rituals, etc. His many books include The Philosophy of Money, The View of Life, and Georg Simmel on Individuality andSocial Forms, the latter two both published by the University of Chicago Press. Georg Simmel was an early German sociologist and structural theorist who focused on urban life and the form of the metropolis. He formally studied philosophy and history at the University of Berlin, but Simmel was interested in a wide variety of topics including psychology, anthropology, economics, and sociology. 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